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Pearson Education Limited Edinburgh Gate, Harlow Essex, CM20 2JE, England And Associated Companies throughout the World. www.longman.com © Pearson Education Limited 2000 The right of Elaine Walker and Steve Elsworth to be identified as authors of this Work has been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. AH rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the Publishers. ISBN 0 582 41710 4 Fifth impression 2004 Set in Slimbach Printed in Malaysia, LSP Illustrations by David Mostyn Project Managed by Lewis Lansford Additional material written by David Bowker. Contents To the student NOUNS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS pronouns 1 -2 possessives 2-5 plurals 7 the article 8-16 countables and uncountables 6,15,17-19 comparative and superlative adjectives 20-25 participial adjectives 26-27 adverbs 27-29 VERBS The present tense present simple and continuous 30-37 The past tense past simple and continuous 38-48 present perfect 48-56 The future tense present continuous as future 56-58 going to future 58-60 63-65 future simple 61-66 present simple as future 65-66 Verb formations irregular verbs 67-70 The passive passives 71-74 Verb formations used to 75-77 imperative 77-78 CONDITIONALS first conditional 79-80 second conditional 81-82 zero conditional 84-85 MODALS modals in questions and negatives 86-87 can, could 87-88 may, might 89-90 should, must 91-92 have to 93-95 GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES The gerund 96-100 The infinitive 101-104 REPORTED SPEECH Direct speech 105-110 Indirect speech 111-114 SENTENCE STRUCTURE Word order direct and indirect object 115-116 frequency adverbs 117-118 link words 118-120 Questions and answers making questions 121-123 short responses 124-125 Relative clauses 126-127 PREPOSITIONS 128-137 PHRASAL VERBS 138-144 TESTS 1-3 145-153 ANSWER KEY 154-168 INDEX 169-174 To the student Grammar Practice for Pre-Intermediate Students gives short, clear explanations of all the main areas of English grammar, and provides practice exercises for you to do. There are two ways in which this book can he used: (i) in class with help from your teacher; (ii) at home by yourself. If you are using the book by yourself, use the Index and the Contents list to find the area that you want to study, read the grammatical explanation, and then do the exercise. To check your answers, you will need to use the edition of Grammar Practice for Pre-Intermediate Students with Answer key. We hope that Grammar Practice for Pre-Intermediate Students helps you to improve your English. Elaine Walker Steve Elsworth Nouns, adjectives and adverbs 1 Subject and object pronouns Subject pronouns I you he she it we you they Object pronouns me you him her it us you them • The subject is the person or thing doing the action: / left early. She went home. We said goodbye. • The object is the person or thing receiving the action: She telephoned me. I hit him. We saw her. Practice Write the correct pronouns for these sentences. 1 ..She... telephoned yesterday, (she) 2 We watched .him... for hours, (he) 3 Hasn't arrived yet? (she) 4 don't understand. (I) 5 Are you talking to ? (I) 6 Don't ask doesn't know, (she/she) 7 This is Julia: have known for years, (we/she) 8 Nobody told the bus was leaving, (they) 9 Why didn't ask to come? (she/they) 10 Don't ask Ask (I/he) 11 think doesn't like (T/hc/I) 12 asked to invite (they/he/we) 1 Nouns, adjectives and adverbs 2 Reflexive pronouns myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves • The object is the same person or thing as the subject: 1 cut myself when I was cooking. The kettle will switch itself off automatically. Practice Write the correct reflexive pronouns for these sentences. 1 I like to wake ..myselff.. up in the morning with a cup of coffee. 2 Thanks for a great party - we really enjoyed . ourselves.. . 3 I hate watching on video. 4 I'm sorry, Tony, but I haven't got enough money to pay for you. Can you pay for ? 5 After his accident, Philip drove to the hospital. 6 We don't need a babysitter - the children can look after 7 Now, children, remember to give enough time to answer all the exam questions. 8 'Should I apply for the job?' she asked 9 We're planning to buy a new television. 10 He hurt when he was playing football. 3 Possessive adjectives • Each pronoun has a possessive adjective: I —> my we —> our you —> your you —> your he —> his they --> their she —• her it —> its Practice Write the correct possessive adjectives for these sentences. 1 These are ..my... parents. (!) 2 I've got watch, (he) 3 Is this car? {you) 4 Do they like new house? (she) 2 Nouns, adjectives and adverbs 5 Have you met teacher? (they) 6 Who's got money? (I) 7 I don't like teacher, (we) 8 Have you got passport? (you) 9 He forgot keys, (he) 10 They changed hotel, (they) 11 She gave the letter to secretary, (she) 12 There's something wrong with car. (I) 13 They're having a party in garden, (they) 14 Where's pen? (I) 15 I like jacket. (You) 4 Possessive adjectives and pronouns Possessive adjectives my your his her its our your their Possessive pronouns mine yours his hers - ours yours theirs • The possessive adjective is always followed by its noun: It's my car. That's his mother. This is our house. • The possessive pronoun is never followed by its noun: This is mine. Give it to Peter: it's his. The money is ours. Practice Write the correct possessive adjective or pronoun for these sentences. 1 Whose camera is this? Is it ..yours. ? (you) 2 Excuse me, those are ,.our.. seats, (we) 3 Is it suitcase or ? (you/he) 4 Has the dog had food? (it) 5 They're not keys - they're (I/she) 6 I don't think its room: I think it's (you/they) 7 The police asked me for address. (I) 3 Nouns, adjectives and adverbs 8 Have you got pen, or would you like to borrow ? (you/I) 9 garden is bigger than (they/we) 10 I think this is book. Oh no, it's (I/you) 11 The decision is (they) 12 The cat wants dinner, (it) 13 You know it's not money. It's (you/I) 14 It isn't car, it's (he/she) 15 It wasn't mistake, it was (I/they) 16 Have you met mother? (they) 17 parents say the decision is (she/they) 18 brother hasn't got a phone, so he uses (I/we) 19 car wasn't working, so I used (I/he) 20 house is smaller than (we/they) 5 The possessive with s • To indicate possession for people or animals: a) in the singular, add 's: Anne's bike James's friend The dog's food b) for plurals ending in s, just add ': The boys' mother My pare/Us' house The ladies' hats c) for other plurals, add 's: The children's friends The women's cars Note: It's = It is. The possessive of it is its: It's cold today. Give the dog its food. Practice Rewrite these sentences, putting the apostrophe (') where necessary. If two answers are possible, write the more likely one. 1 We talked to the boys parents for some time. We talked to the boys' parents for some time. We talked to the boy's parents for some time. 2 We can borrow my fathers car. We can borrow my father's car. 3 Have you met Susans friend? 4 About sixty people use the teachers room. 5 Someone had taken Barbaras purse. 6 Something was hurting the animals foot. 7 I'm going to write to the childrens parents. 8 Jane works in my mothers office. 9 The dog doesn't like its food. 10 Mary and Pat stayed at their friends house. 11 Are you going to the secretaries meeting? 12 I put the money in the waiters hand. 13 lans suit was very expensive. Nouns, adjectives and adverbs 6 Countable and uncountable nouns • Countable nouns are things that can be counted: a book, two cars, three planes • Uncountable nouns cannot be counted as one, two, three, etc: milk, water, flour > Exercise 17: if we want to count these things, we use a litre of, a kilo of, etc. Note: Bread, cheese, butter, information, news, food, and money are all uncountable nouns. >• Exercise 14 for some and any. Practice Write 'C for countable, 'U' for uncountable. apple water boy milk table pen bread cup computer money C U cheese tooth car grass person road chair bicycle hand flour I information butter sugar tree garden book news bus wine house Nouns, adjectives and adverbs 7 Singular and plural • To make a singular noun plural, add s: brother —> brothers; car —> cars; house —> houses Notes • If the word ends in ch, sh, x, or s, add es. match —> matches; box —> boxes • If the word ends in y, change to ies: baby —> babies; lady —> ladies • Remember the common irregular plurals: men, women, children, people, teeth, feet Practice Write the plurals. brother sister match key camera church teacher garden sandwich door lady gentleman tooth restaurant house brothers woman box baby person man child secretary student bus cinema foot boy table window banana Nouns, adjectives and adverbs 8 The indefinite article a • a (or an) is used with countable nouns (> Exercise 6) to indicate one. Can I have a cup of tea? I've got a daughter and two sons. • a is not used before a plural noun (NOT I've got a sons). • a is not used before uncountable nouns (NOT I want a petrol, please). Practice Write a, an, or nothing to complete these sentences. 1 I'd like ..a.. sandwich, please. 1 He asked me for ..-.. money. 3 They wanted information about the trains. 4 I'd like apple and orange, please. 5 They've got very big house. 6 Do you like fast cars? 7 We watched films all afternoon. 8 Have you got umbrella? 9 I asked for bread and cheese. 10 Are you drinking milk? 11 I had glass of water. 12 He gave me orange. 13 Is there telephone here? 14 We had eggs for breakfast. 15 I like coffee and tea. Nouns, adjectives and adverbs 9 The indefinite article a and the definite article the • a is used with countable nouns to indicate one (>- Exercise 8): I've got two bikes and a car. She's a lawyer. He's a teacher. • the is used: a) when a word is used a second time; He gave me a knife and a spoon. The spoon was dirty. I bought a pen and some paper, but I left the pen in the shop. b) when only one object exists: the earth, the sun, the River Thames Practice Write a, the, or no article to complete these sentences. 1 She's .a... journalist. 2 ..The.. moon moves slowly round the... earth. 3 sun is shining. 4 I'd like cup of coffee, please. 5 Have you got double room? 6 He gave me a lighter and some cigarettes but lighter didn't work. 7 There was doctor and nurse in the room nurse was sleeping. 8 She took sandwich and piece of cake, but didn't eat cake. 9 Yes, I work at this school. I'm teacher. 10 A man and two women were sitting in the car. 1 think man was Italian. 11 Did you see Pope when he came to England? 12 He offered me cigarette, but I refused. 13 Did you send me postcard when you were in Greece? 14 They had six cats and dog. T really liked dog. 15 Have you got match, please? 16 She sent me letter and card letter didn't arrive. 17 I had cup of tea and ice cream tea was terrible. 18 Have you met Sally? She's friend of mine. Nouns, adjectives and adverbs 10 No article or the before names of places • a or the is not usually used before names of villages, towns, streets, cities, countries or continents. She lives in Paris. We went to India. • the is used before names of seas, rivers, groups of islands or mountains, kingdoms, republics, deserts, plural names of countries: the Atlantic Ocean, the River Thames, the Netherlands, the Arctic (land and sea), the Antarctic (land and sea), the Alps, the United States of America, the United Arab Emirates, the Sahara, the United Kingdom, the Nile, the Gobi Desert. Practice Write the names of the places below in two columns, those with the and those without the. River Seine Luxembourg Istanbul Pyrenees Chile Solomon Islands with the River Seme Philippines Sweden Oxford Street Bombay South China Sea Hamburg Algeria Rocky Mountains St Lawrence River Barcelona People's Republic of Mongolia Pacific Ocean without the Luxembourg 10 Nouns, adjectives and adverbs 11 No article or definite article? Words using no article He doesn't like going to school. I think she's at home now. I usually get to work at 9.30. Do you go to church on Sundays? She was very tired so she went to bed early. Did you have the baby in hospital? Their father's in prison. • There is usually no a or the before: school, college, university, home, work, church, bed, hospital, prison, town. Note: We only say a or the before these words when the building is important and not its use: It was a beautiful church. The school is very old now. This is not a very comfortable bed. Is there a prison near here? The hospital is closing down. Words using the We don't very often go to the cinema. Did you go to the disco on Saturday? I go to the supermarket every Friday. • We usually say the before the places we visit in a town: the cinema, theatre, disco, opera, post office, bank; names of shops - baker's, grocer's, supermarket, chemist, butcher's; dentist('s), doctor('s), hairdresser('s), toilet And we say the shopping: I do the shopping on Mondays. • But we can sometimes use a before these words: Did you go to the disco on Saturday? but: There's a new disco in town. I'm going to the bank, but: Does she work in a bank? Practice Write the sentences, adding the where necessary. 1 Is he still in bed? \e he still in bed? 2 Would you like to go to cinema tonight? Would you like to go to the cinema tonight? 3 We visit him in prison about once a month. 4 Can I go home now? 11 Nouns, adjectives and adverbs 5 I usually go to bank once a week. 6 Does she like it at university? 7 School is almost falling down. 8 I do all my shopping at supermarket. 9 What time do you finish work? 10 I went to hairdresser last week but my hair looks terrible. 11 Bed in this room is too small for me. 12 I don't usually go to church but my parents do. 13 He goes to doctor's regularly - he always thinks he's ill. 14 What are you going to study at college? 15 Poor James! He hates being in hospital. 12 Nouns, adjectives and adverbs 12 Other words with a, an, the or no article The apples are £1 a kilo. I never drive more than 80 kilometres an hour. She smokes about twenty cigarettes a day. a, an when talking about cost, speed or how often we do something. Can you play the guitar? I love listening to the piano. the with musical instruments when we talk about playing them or listening to them. But note: I'd like to buy a piano. I usually listen to the radio in the mornings. They watch television most evenings. the with listen to the radio. No article with watch television. But note: Have you got a new television? This is an expensive radio. English isn't too difficult to learn. History is my favourite subject. She plays tennis very well. I usually have toast for breakfast. • No article before names of academic subjects, languages, sports, meals. Practice Complete these sentences with a, an, the or no article. 1 She plays ..?/?<?.. piano beautifully. 2 We usually meet once week. 3 I enjoy studying languages but I find Latin quite difficult. 4 I always listen to radio when I get up. 5 Can your daughter play violin? 6 I can cycle 15 miles hour. 7 Do you enjoy learning Spanish? 8 I take the children swimming twice week. 9 I think you watch television too often. 10 Did you study physics at school? 11 This flat costs £100 week. 12 1 love listening to saxophone. 13 The potatoes are 80 pence bag. 14 Can you speak Russian? 15 1 really enjoy playing football at the weekends. 13 Nouns, adjectives and adverbs 13 Summary • a, an + singular noun; We are talking about one thing but it is not the only one. There is more than one of them. • the + singular noun: There is only one or we are talking about a particular one. The speaker and listener know which one. Practice 13a Complete the conversation with a, an, the or no article. A: It's '..a.. beautiful day today. I'd like to go to ..the.. beach. B: Yes, but3 beach is always crowded. I'd like to stay at4 home and sit in 5 garden. We can have lunch in 7 garden. A: But we stayed at home a)] day yesterday. I'd like to go out. I'm going back to 9 work tomorrow and this is l0 last day of my holiday. B: Well, we could go out tonight. There's " good film on at 12 cinema, or we could go to 13 theatre. A: O.K. but14 theatre's too expensive. It's about £15 15 seat. B: That's true. We'll go to l6 cinema, then. Or we could stay here and watch 17 television. A: Oh no, that's boring. I want to go to 1S cinema. B: And this afternoon? A: You can stay here but I think I'll go to 19 town. B: Can you do 2U shopping when you're in town? A: Oh, all right. 13b In your notebook, add, remove or change the articles in these sentences to make them correct. Some sentences contain more than one mistake. 1 Our first lesson after the lunch is the geography. 2 I first played a baseball in USA last summer. 3 The Rome is my favourite city in Italy. 4 When I leave a university I want to be the journalist. 5 What time does bank open on Fridays? 6 I often work at the home. 14 Nouns, adjectives and adverbs 14 a, some, any > Exercise 6 for the difference between countable and uncountable nouns. • a is used with singular countable nouns: I'm waiting for a bus. • some is used in positive sentences a) with plural countable nouns: Some people arrived. I'd like a loaf and some eggs, please. b] with uncountable nouns: / bought some milk. I'd like some water, please. • any is used like some, but in negative sentences and questions a) with plural countable nouns: Did you meet, any friends in town? I didn't buy any eggs. b) with uncountable nouns: Did you buy any milk? I didn't have any water. • No is also used to mean not any, but with a positive verb form: There were no eggs in the market. I had no water. • some is used in offers: Would you like some coffee? Would you like some tea? I've got {Wouldn't you like...?) Have you got ...? I haven't got an apple some oranges some sugar an apple any oranges any sugar Practice 14 Complete the sentences with a, an, some or any. 1 Would you like..a.. cup of tea? 2 There's some.. butter in the fridge. 3 Can I make telephone call? 4 There weren't books in the house. 5 There are children at the door. 6 She wants glass of water. 7 They don't have friends in the village. 15 Nouns, adjectives and adverbs STAGE 1 8 I bought lemonade yesterday. 9 Have you got watch? 10 She'd like new perfume. 11 We're getting new car soon. 12 There isn't shampoo in the bathroom. 13 I'd like apple, please. 14 The house hasn't got furniture. 15 Would you like orange juice? 16 I've got bananas and apple. 17 Did you bring bread? 18 I'd like water, please. 19 Sorry, I haven't got matches. 20 I asked the waiter for tea. 15 something, anything; someone, anyone (or somebody, anybody) Positive 16 There's someone at the door. I've got something to tell you. Negative I didn't know anyone at the party. We didn't have anything to drink. Question Did you meet anyone at the club? Do you know anything about this place? Note: Can I have ...?, Would you like ...? + something, someone: Would you tike something to eat? Can I have something to drink? Practice Circle the correct word in each sentence. 1 Is there {something, to eat in the fridge? 2 There's {something/anything) about your friend Alec in the paper. 3 I met [someone/anyone) from your office last night. 4 I called at their house but there wasn't {someone/anyone) in. 5 Do you know {someone/anyone) in this street? 16 Nouns, adjectives and adverbs Practice Write a few, a little, much or many to complete these sentences. Do not use some, any, or a lot of. 1 There's some food, but not .much... drink. 2 .A few people arrived before the party started, but not many. 3 There's not food in the cupboard. 4 She hasn't got friends. 5 T'm sorry, I haven't got time. 6 The receptionist didn't give me information. 7 I can lend you money until tomorrow. 8 1 asked him to put milk in my coffee. 9 I've seen her Times this year, but not very often. 10 We only have petrol left. 11 She started feeling ill only days before the exam. 12 Not people come here in the winter. 13 Did they pay you money for working there? 14 There aren't towns in this part of England. 15 I didn't drink wine at the party. 16 There are only people at the beach. 17 1 didn't have opportunity to talk to him. 18 The bank only lent me money. 19 Can I ask you questions? 20 The journey was a short one: it didn't take time. 21 Only students are going to fail the exam. 22 I don't think people will come tonight. 23 1 haven't done work today. 24 I gave the cat milk. 25 1 don't think I've made mistakes. 18 Nouns, adjectives and adverbs 17 Counting the uncountables • It is not possible to say one water, two flours, etc. Uncountable objects are counted in two ways: a) in litres, kilos, etc: Could I have a kilo of potatoes? I need three litres of milk. b) by counting the containers that hold the uncountable noun: I'd like three bottles of lemonade, please. or by dividing the object into pieces, which are then counted: Would you like a piece of cake? Practice Write the correct word for each object. 1 a of lemonade 3 a of bread 5 a of peas 2 a of cake 4 a of chocolates 6 a of chocolate 7 a of Coca-Cola 8 a of jam 9 a of cigarettes 11 a of milk 10 a of bread 12 a of toothpaste 19 Nouns, adjectives and adverbs 18 Comparatives (tall, taller; comfortable, more comfortable) • Adjectives with one syllable (tall, great, short, etc.) add er: tall —>taller; great —> greater; short —> shorter Adjectives that end with e just add r: wide -+ wider a) If the word ends in one vowel + consonant, double the consonant: thin —• thinner; hot --> hotter; big —• bigger b] If the word ends in two vowels + consonant, do not double the consonant: great —> greater; poor --> poorer c] If the word ends in e, just add r: large —> larger d) Note the irregulars: good —> better; bad —> worse Practice 18a Write the comparatives. tall thin wide long good fat old taller large rich poor young big bad clean short hot cold warm cheap small brave • Adjectives with three syllables or more (comfortable, beautiful expensive, etc.) add more: comfortable —• more comfortable; beautiful —• more beautiful; expensive —> more expensive • When making comparisons, use than: Mary's taller than John. John's shorter than Mary. The big television's more expensive than the small one. This chair's more comfortable than that one. 18b Write the correct comparative for these sentences. 1 The Mississippi's ..longer than_ the Thames, (long) 2 This hotel's . more,comfort able than__ the other one. (comfortable) 3 I think this shop is that one. (good) 4 The restaurant is the cafe, (expensive) 20 Nouns, adjectives and adverbs 5 Simon's Mark, (old) 6 I think Scotland is England, (beautiful) 7 My brother's I am. (young) 8 1 like this school because it's the other one. (big) 9 Accommodation here is in my country. (expensive) 10 The weather here is at home, (cold) 11 I think you're your father now. (tall) 12 His homework was mine, (bad) 13 This film is the one you wanted to see. (interesting) 14 The journey is I thought, (long) 15 This lesson is the last one. (difficult) 19 Comparatives > Exercise 18 for adjectives with one syllable, and with three syllables or more. • Adjectives with two syllables a) generally use more- careful -> more careful; stupid —> more stupid; cautious --> more cautious b) but if the adjective ends in er, y, ow, add er: clever --> cleverer; friendly —• friendlier (note: y changes to i); pretty —> prettier; narrow —> narrower • The comparative of little is less, and of few is fewer: I've got less money than she has. There are fewer problems than there were before. Note: It's getting hotter and hotter. It's getting more and mure dangerous. Practice Write the comparative of the words given to complete the sentences. Add than where necessary. 1 He is . more helpful than he used to be. (helpful") 2 It was slowly getting .hotter. and .hotter... (hot) 3 I had time than T needed to finish the job. (little) 21 Nouns, adjectives and adverbs 4 Peter gets and all the time, (selfish) 5 You seem you were yesterday, (happy) 6 My chair was getting and (uncomfortable) 7 We need actors for this film, (young) 8 I think that the new salesman is the last one. (honest) 9 This road is and the other one. (long/dangerous) 10 Is the new car the old one? (expensive) 11 This system is the last one we had. (easy) 12 People here are they are at home, (polite) 13 The man was getting and (angry) 14 The city is it used to be. (crowded) 15 She was feeling she had been earlier. (miserable) 16 Computers are nowadays, (complicated) 17 I think trains are and cars, (fast/comfortable) 18 We will have to think of a method, (good) 19 I'm beginning to feel about the results. (hopeful) 20 She seems to be getting and (thin] 21 My new dictionary is a lot the last one. (useful) 22 These trousers are too wide. Do you have any that are ? (narrow) 23 young people learn to play musical instruments than in the past, (few) 24 The film got and until I fell asleep! (boring) 25 I think that people who live in villages are people in big cities, (friendly) 26 Her new job is a lot the last one. (stressful) 22 Nouns, adjectives and adverbs 20 Comparatives Check Complete these sentences, using the comparative form of the adjectives given. 1 It's hotter.. here than in London, (hot) 2 She's .more imaginative.. than her brother, (imaginative) 3 He's than all the other students, (old) 4 Do you think Pat is than Brian? (intelligent) 5 This school is than ours, (old-fashioned) 6 The computer was than 1 thought. (expensive) 7 The rooms are than they used to be. (clean) 8 He's than he was a year ago. (healthy) 9 Do you think English is than French. (difficult) 10 He eats a lot - he's getting and (fat) 11 His face was getting and (red) 12 He was than T had ever seen him before. (angry) 13 Big cars are than small ones, (comfortable) 14 My exam was than I had thought, (bad) 15 The road becomes after four or five miles. (narrow) 16 I'm sure I'll find New York than Houston. (exciting) 17 I need to go to the doctor - this cough is getting and (bad) 18 He thinks Charlie Chaplin is than Mr Bean, (funny) 19 Their plane ticket was than mine because they flew on a Sunday, (cheap) 20 My son is a lot now that he's a teenager, (lazy) 23 Nouns, adjectives and adverbs 21 as... as • To say that two things or people are the same or equal: My son is as tall as you. • To say that two things or people are not the same or equal: The second half of the football match was not as exciting as the first half. Practice Complete these sentences, using the adjectives in the box. boring comfortable dangerous deep difficult feet independent old relaxing valuable 1 This summer is not as .hot.. as last summer. 2 I hope his new book is not as .boring...as his last one. 3 She was afraid of flying, but I told her it's not as as travelling by car. 4 Don't worry. The river isn't as as it looks. 5 Silver isn't as as gold. 6 Dogs aren't as as cats. 7 Our new car is very fast, but it's not as as the old one. 8 Do you think French is as to learn as English? 9 Were you really born in 1980? I didn't realise you were as as me. 10 For me, lying on the beach is not as as walking in the mountains. 22 Superlatives • Adjectives with one syllable add est: great —• greatest; small --> smallest; old —> oldest > Exercise 18 for spelling changes. • Adjectives with two syllables use most: careful --> most careful; patient --> most patient But two syllable adjectives ending in er, y or oxv, add est: clever —> cleverest; happy --> happiest; pretty --> prettiest (y changes to i); narrow --> narrowest • Adjectives with three syllables or more use most: expensive —> most expensive; dangerous --> most dangerous; comfortable —> most comfortable 24 Nouns, adjectives and adverbs Note: The irregulars: bad --> worst good —> best little --> least USE Superlatives are used to compare one thing with several others. They are used with the ... in, or the ... of; sometimes they are used with just the .... This is the longest river in the world. This is the most expensive car of them all. This is the most expensive car here. Practice Write the superlatives of the words given, using in or of where necessary. 1 This is .the biggest building in.. the world, (big building) 2 This is here, (comfortable chair) 3 He bought the shop, (expensive flowers) 4 I think she's the group, (good singer) 5 He's the company, (careful driver) 6 Who's the class? (old student) 7 It's I've ever seen, (bad film) 8 She's all the students, (intelligent) 9 It was I had ever heard, (beautiful music) 10 He's all the assistants, (helpful) 11 He's his class, (young) 12 This is the world, (poor country) 13 She's I've ever met. (strange person) 14 I didn't answer questions, (difficult) 15 Peter's them all. (old) 23 too, enough • The infinitive with to is often used after too + adjective, or not + adjective + enough. It's too cold to swim today. (We can't swim today - it's too cold.) It isn't warm enough to go to the beach. (We can't go to the beach - it's not warm enough.) 25 Nouns, adjectives and adverbs Practice Complete these sentences using too or not ... enough. 1 I can't walk any further - I'm ..too tired... (tired) 2 I'm sorry. You're .not old.enough to see this film. (old) 3 It's to work here. Let's go to the library. [noisy) 4 Ian was to get into the swimming team. (fast) 5 Your handwriting is to read, (small) 6 I'm afraid we can't buy that computer. It's (expensive) 7 I don't think George should get the new job - he's (efficient) 8 Those jeans are to wear to the party. (dirty) 9 We couldn't talk to each other in the pub - the music was (loud) 10 Can you help me with this bottle? I'm to open it. (strong) 24 Participial adjectives (bored/boring) CONTRAST • Note the difference: I was bored. The lesson was boring. It is not possible to say: The lesson was bored. It is possible to say: She was boring. Practice Circle the correct word in each sentence. 1 It was a very [interested^ performance. 2 We were all very 'interesting) in what he said. 3 It was a very {tired/tiring) journey. 4 We were all very [worried/worrying). 5 The children are [frightening/frightened) by the animals. 26 Nouns, adjectives and adverbs 6 Why do you look so {bored/boring) at school? 7 It was a terribly [excited/exciting) day. 8 Don't look so [worrying/worried). 9 We had a [tiring/tired) trip home. 10 It was an extremely {amused/amusing} programme. 11 It was an [exciting/excited) idea! 12 It was the most [boring/bored) lesson I can remember. 13 We were all feeling (tired/tiring), 14 Didn't you think it was an {amused/amusing) play? 15 The last half hour was a [worrying/worried) time. 16 I've never been so [frightened/frightening) in my life. 25 Adverbs of manner • Adverbs of manner are formed from adjectives by adding ly: quick --> quickly; polite —> politely; careful —• carefully • Note these irregulars: good -> well; hard -> hard; fast --> fast; early --> early; late --> late; loud --> loud or loudly. He's a good worker. He works well. She's a hard worker. She works hard. She's a fast runner. She runs fast. Practice Write the adverbs. quick slow fast careful stupid dangerous good hard quickly clever nice bad intelligent polite rude brave early Nouns, adjectives and adverbs 26 Comparison of adverbs • Most adverbs are used with more and most: slowly —> more slowly, most slowly dangerously--> more dangerously, most dangerously • One-syllable adverbs add er and est: hard —• harder, hardest; fast --> faster, fastest; loud --> louder, loudest • The irregular comparisons are: 2 Of all the machines, this one works the (good) 3 Couldn't you drive a bit ? (careful) 4 I can't understand. Would you ask him to speak ? (clear] 5 They all behaved badly, but Pat behaved the (bad) 6 John was shouting than everybody else, (loud) 7 I think I understand than the others, (good) 8 Susan climbed than the rest of us. (fast) 9 She gets up than everybody else in the house, (early) 10 Do you think they have acted ? (stupid) 28 well badly little better worse less best worst least far farther/ further farthest/ furthest Practice Write the correct form of adverbs for these sentences. 1 She works ..harder.. than all the others, (hard) Nouns, adjectives and adverbs 27 Adjectives and adverbs Check Complete these sentences. 1 It was .the.best.. driving I have ever seen, (good) 2 Peter sang ..louder than all the others, (loud) 3 The holiday wasn't .as expensive.. as the one we had last year. 4 She's a good student: she works than the others, (careful) 5 Would you play , please? I'm trying to sleep, (quiet) 6 Of all the people in the factory, Joan works (efficient) 7 The weather isn't as I had expected. (bad) 8 This is the company in the world, (big) 9 She plays the piano than anyone else in her class, (beautiful) 10 Mr Jones is person in the village, (old) 11 Mark hit the ball very (hard) 12 She runs than anyone else in the team. (fast) 13 Do you think older people drive than younger people? (slow) 14 They all dance well, but John dances (good) 15 This computer is nearly twice as the old one. (expensive) 16 He doesn't ski as his sister, (good) 17 This typewriter is than mine, (modern) 18 1 think they both behaved very (rude) 19 People aren't as they used to be. (thoughtful) 20 I waited than anyone else, (long) 29 Verbs THE PRESENT TENSE 28 Present Simple FORM Positive Question Negative I You We They He She It work. works. Do Does I you we they he she it work? work? I YOU We They He She it do not (don't) does not (doesn't) work. work. • There is only one form of you in English, which is the same in singular and plural. • Note the endings with he, she, and it. If the verb ends in ss, sh, ch, or x, add es: He finishes {finish ends in sh) She watches (watch ends in ch) USE • For something which is permanently true: I come from France. He doesn't speak Spanish. We live in London. • For repeated actions or habits: 1 get up at six o'clock every day. What time do you leave work? I don't see them very often. Practice Rewrite each sentence as a positive or negative sentence, or a question, according to the instructions. 1 I visit my parents very often, (negative) / don't visit my parents very often. 2 Does he go to school every day? (positive) He goes to school every day. 3 She comes from Germany, (question) Does she come from Germany? 30 Verbs 4 She goes to work by car. (question) 5 We watch television every night, (negative) 6 He doesn't walk to work every day. (positive) 7 She plays football every Saturday, (question) 8 He washes his car every week, (question) 9 They live in Australia, (question) 10 They go to school by bus. (question) 11 Does she finish work at five o'clock? (positive) 12 He goes to the cinema on Fridays, (question) 13 I come from Africa, (negative) 14 Does he live in this street? (positive) 15 He works in a restaurant, (question) 16 She gets up at five o'clock, (question) 17 They eat a lot. (negative) 18 Does he work here? (positive) 31 Verbs 29 Present Continuous FORM Positive Question I am - He She is - It We You are — They I'm He's She's It's We're You're They're working. Am Is Are I he she it we you they working? I am — He She is - It We You are - They I'm He's She's It's We're You're They're not working. — He She It We You They isn't aren't working. Negative with not Negative with n't USE • For an action in progress now: I'm reading a grammar book now. What are you looking at? She isn't eating at the moment. Practice Rewrite each sentence as a positive or negative sentence, or a question, according to the instructions. 1 She's watching television now. (question) Is she watching television now? 2 He isn't staying at this hotel, (positive) He's staying at thle hotel. 3 She's reading, (negative) She isn't reading. 4 They're working, (question) 32 Verbs 5 He's writing a letter, [question) 6 He's eating, (negative) 7 I'm not working, (positive) 8 She's studying at the moment, (question) 9 I'm sleeping, (negative) 10 You're reading my newspaper, (question) 11 She's writing a letter, (question) 12 He's talking to Mary, (question) 13 They're not playing football, (positive) 14 He's listening to the radio, (question) 15 You're playing with my football, (question) 30 Present Simple/Present Continuous Practice - In your notebook, write these sentences putting the verbs into the correct tense. 1 She (read) at the moment. She's reading at the moment. 2 (You go) to work by car? Do you qo to work by car? 3 I (not watch} television every night. / don't watch television every night. 4 I (not watch) television at the moment. I'm not watching television at the moment. 33 Verbs 5 We {see] our parents every week. 6 (You listen) to the radio now? 7 I (not get up) at seven o'clock every morning. 8 Peter (talk) to Susan now. 9 (They work) in the restaurant at the weekends? 10 She (listen) to the radio in her bedroom at the moment. 11 They (not come) to school every day. 12 (You work) now? 13 The children (go) to bed at eight o'clock. 14 1 (leave) the office every day at five. 15 I'm sorry i can't talk to you now. I (go) out. 16 (Peter and Jane work) in London at the moment? 17 (Mary and Susan drive) to the office every day? 18 We (go) to the beach now. 19 (John listen) to the radio at the moment? 20 (Your parents sit) in the garden now? 21 The film (start) every night at eight o'clock 22 They (not go) to the cinema very often. 23 (You go) into the office every month? 24 I (not study) at the moment. 31 Present Continuous: short answers 34 FORM Positive Negative Verbs Notes • Nouns —• pronouns. 'Are your parents sleeping?' 'Yes, they are.' • Positive short answers do not use contractions: Yes, 1 am. (NOT Yes, I'm) Yes, they are. (NOT Yes, they're) • Contractions are used in negative short answers. 7s she working?' 'No, she isn't' Practice Someone is asking you questions. Write the short answers. 1 'Are you working at the moment?' 'No, ' 2 'Are your sislers working now?' 'No, ' 3 'Are your parents coming?' 'Yes ' 4 'Is John working at the moment?' 'Yes, ' 5 'Are they playing tennis?' 'No, ' 6 'Are you reading this book?' 'Yes, ' 7 'Is Mary going to school today?' 'No, ' 8 'Is Peter listening to the radio?' 'Yes, ' 9 'Are they doing their homework now?' 'No, ' 10 'Is the dog sleeping?' 'Yes, ' Yes, I am. he she is. it we you are. they No, I'm not. he she 's not. it we you 're not. they or he she isn't. it we you aren't, they Verbs 32 Present Simple: short answers FORM Positive Negative Notes • Nouns * pronouns 'Do the men want some tea? 'Yes, they do.' • Negative short answers can use the unconnected form: No, they do Jiot. (this is more emphatic) Practice Write the short answers. 1 'Do you live here?1 'Yes, ' 2 'Does Mary work in this office?' 'No, ' 3 'Does Stephen speak French?' 'No, ' 4 'Do the teachers like your work?' 'Yes, ' 5 'Do you understand the lessons?' 'No, ' 6 'Do they visit you often?' 'No ' 7 'Do you like France?1 'Yes, ' 8 'Do your parents live in London?' 'Yes, .' 9 'Does your father like modern music?' 'No, ' 10 'Does Judy drive to work?1 'Yes, .' 11 'Do your grandparents still enjoy gardening?' 'Yes, ' 12 'Does Simon's sister work with you?' 'No, .' 13 'Do John and Alison eat meat?' 'No, ' 14 'Docs Tony like adventure films?' 'Yes, ' 15 'Do you watch TV at the weekend?' 'No, ' 16 'Does your uncle play tennis?' 'Yes .' 36 Yes, I we you do. they he she does, it No, we you don't, they he she doesn't, it Verbs 33 Present Simple and Continuous: short forms Check Someone is asking you questions. Write the short answers. 1 'Are your brothers working today?' 'Yes, 2 'Do you speak Italian?' 'No, 3 'Do you like this school?' 'Yes, ' 4 'Do you go to school in London?' 'Yes, ' 5 'Is your mother watching television?1 'Yes, ' 6 'Do you go to school on Sundays?' 'No, ' 7 'Are your parents staying here?' 'No, ' 8 'Does the dog sleep in your bedroom?' 'No, ' 9 'Do you get up at eight o'clock?' 'Yes, ' 10 'Is Mary listening to the stereo?' 'Yes ' 11 'Does the film start at six o'clock?' 'No, ' 12 'Are the children playing football?' 'Yes, ' 13 'Does Susan drive to work?' 'Yes ' 14 Are you reading?' 'No, ' 15 'Am I reading your paper?' 'Yes, ' 16 'Are they doing the washing up?' 'Yes, ' 17 'Do you come to work by bike?' 'No, ' 18 'Is John watching television?' 'No, ' 19 'Does Paul swim for the school team?' 'Yes, ' 20 'Am I sitting in the right place?' 'Yes, ' 21 'Do you like reading poetry?' 'No, ' 22 'Do we need our coats?' 'No, ' 23 'Are Anne and Maria waiting for the bus?1 'Yes, ' 24 'Are you enjoying yourself?' 'Yes, ' 25 'Is she coming now?' 'No, ' 26 'Does he know London well?' 'No, ' 27 'Do they like chicken?' 'Yes, ' i Verbs THE PAST TENSE 34 Past Simple: question and negative FORM • The past simple question form is the same for all persons (I, you, he, she, etc.) and all verbs: Did Did Subject I he she it we you they Infinitive leave? go? stay? Subject I He She It We You They did not did not didn't Infinitive leave. go- stay. • The past simple negative form is the same for all persons and all verbs: USE >- Exercise 35. Practice Write these sentences in the past simple, keeping them as questions or negatives. 1 Do they agree? Did they agree? 2 They don't drive. They didn't drive. 3 When do they go? 4 Where do they work? 5 Do you understand? 6 I don't know 7 He doesn't like it 8 What do you think? 38 Verbs 9 She doesn't live here 10 How much does it cost? 11 When do you get up? 12 1 don't swim 13 She doesn't speak Spanish 14 We don't understand 15 When do they leave? 16 When does he go to school? 17 Do you like Germany? 18 When do you go out? 19 She doesn't smoke 20 He doesn't know 35 Past Simple: positive - regular verbs FORM • Regular verbs have the same form for all persons (I, you, he, she, etc.): Notes • Irregular verbs are different in the positive >• Exercise 36. • Remember to use the infinitive without ed for questions and negatives Exercise 34. Did you stay? (NOT Did you stayed?) • Spelling: a) verbs ending in e add only d: I love — / loved b) verbs ending in y change y to led: I try — I tried c) most verbs ending in a single vowel + single consonant change to single vowel + double consonant: / travel —• travelled We stop —• we stopped 39 Subject I He She It We You They Infinitive + ed stayed. Verbs USE • For a past action or state. The action can be a short one: / asked a question. She missed the bus. Practice Change the verbs into the past simple, keeping them as positives, negatives, or questions. 1 He lives here. He lived here. 2 Do you work here? Did you work here? 3 I don't like the film 4 She hates the hotel 5 We don't live there 6 Does he play the piano? 7 I love Paris 8 He doesn't work very hard 9 She travels a lot 10 He walks everywhere 11 I don't study English 12 Do you drive to school? 13 I don't like him 14 Do you miss your parents? 15 We love Spain 16 John studies music 17 Where do you live? 18 What does he study? 19 Where does she work? 20 We don't like London 21 They hate waiting 22 They work in a factory 40 or a long one: / walked for hours. I lived here for years. Verbs 36 Past Simple: positive - irregular verbs FORM • Irregular verbs have the same form for all persons (I, you, he, she, etc) Subject I He She It We You They Past Simple went. • Irregular verbs are irregular in the past simple in the positive only (not in the negative or question form): go — went She went home yesterday, sit — sat I sat down, write -- wrote She wrote for hours. go sit come write run — went -- sat — came -- wrote — ran give -- have -- get up -- eat -- drink — gave had got up ate drank Practice Use the verbs above to complete these sentences. 1 I .wrote... a few letters yesterday. 2 He at six o'clock this morning. 3 They home late last night. 4 She a headache yesterday. 5 I was hungry so I some bread and cheese. 6 They came into my office and down. 7 We some water. 8 I was late so I to work. 9 She abroad last week. 10 They him some money. 41 USE Exercise 35. Look at these irregular forms ( Exercise 54 for a longer list): Verbs 37 Past Simple: positive Practice 37a Write the past simple positive of these irregular verbs. buy catch choose come do drink eat bought forget give go know make put read see sit speak take tell think understand 37b In your notebook, write these sentences putting the verbs into the past simple. Remember that the infinitive is used for questions and negatives. 1 I some new clothes last week, (buy) / bought some new clothes last week. 2 What time last night? (they come) What time did they come last night? 3 I his question, (not understand) / didn't understand his question. 4 I he was wrong, (think) 5 a lot at the party? (you eat) 6 I the bus this morning, (not catch) 7 I my keys yesterday, (forget) 8 you about the meeting? (they tell) 9 Peter the washing-up last night, (do) 10 They anything at the disco, (not drink) 11 I your suitcase in your bedroom, (put) 12 We it was your birthday, (not know) 13 to the office yesterday? (you go) 14 They her a present when she left, (give) 15 We their letters, (read) 42 Verbs 38 Past Continuous FORM Positive I He She It We You They was were working. Question Was Were I he she it theyI working? Negative I He She It We You They was not (wasn't) were not (weren't) working. USE To describe a past action at some point between its beginning and its end. The past continuous is often interrupted by the past simple. I was having a bath when the phone rang. John arrived when I was eating. I was listening to the radio when I had an idea. We were playing tennis at 7 o'clock last night. Note the difference between: a) When she arrived, we had dinner. b) When she arrived, we were having dinner. The time order for (a) is arriving then having dinner. The time order for (b) is having dinner, during which she arrived. When she arrived, we were having dinner. Practice 38a Look at these sentences and answer the questions by circling A or B. 1 When I saw them, they were playing football. Which happened first? A I saw them (B) they were playing football 43 Verbs 2 When she telephoned, I was having a bath. Which happened first? A the telephone call B the bath 3 They were watching television when I visited them. Which happened first? A They were watching television B I visited them 4 I was walking into the house when I heard the noise. Which happened first? A I was walking into the house B I heard the noise 5 I walked into the house when I heard the noise. Which happened first? A I walked into the house B I heard the noise. 6 We left the party when the police arrived. Which happened first? A We left the party B the police arrived 7 We were leaving the party when the police arrived. Which happened first? A We were leaving the party B the police arrived 8 I made the beds when Joan and Ian got here. Which happened first? A I made the beds B Joan and Ian got here. 9 I was making the beds when Joan and Ian got here. Which happened first. A I was making the beds B Joan and Ian got here 10 I was getting into my car when I heard the shot. Which happened first? A I was getting into my car B I heard the shot 38b Complete these sentences by putting the verbs into the past continuous or the past simple. 1 I ..was watching., television when the phone rang, (watch] 2 When the ambulance came, we him into it. (carry) 3 She her car when she suddenly felt ill. (drive) 4 When he saw me, he off the wall, (fall) 44 Verbs 5 We to the radio when it suddenly stopped working, (listen) 6 Why cards when he walked into the office? (you play) 7 you when you gave them the money? (they thank) 8 when you turned on the gas? (you smoke) 9 When I arrived, they hello but continued working, (say) 10 When I got to the hospital, she in the waiting room, (sit) 38c In your notebook, write a question and answer in the past continuous and in the past simple. start raining lie on the beach leave the beach 'What you it ?' 'We ' 'What were you doing when it started raining?' 'We were lying on the beach.' 'What did you do when it started raining?' 'We left the beach.' arrive watch television turn off the television 'What they you ?' 'They ' 'What were they doing when you arrived?' 'They were watching television.' 'What did they do when you arrived?' 'They turned off the television.' see him talk to Sheila start talking to me 'What John you ?' 'He ' ring have a bath get out of the bath "What she the phone ?' 'She ' 45 Verbs 5 hear work in the office go straight home 'What you you the news?' 'I ' start cook the dinner run out of the house 'What they the fire ?' 'They ' fall down talk to a friend pick her up 'What she the child ?' 'She ' start work in a bank become a soldier 'What you the war ?' 'I ' 39 Past Simple and Past Continuous Practice Write did, was, or were to complete these sentences. 1 I . did. n't like it. 2 They ..were, enjoying themselves. 3 you have a good time? 4 What time you leave? 5 he staying in a hotel? 6 I n't eating. 7 What you do then? 8 Why they sitting there? 9 What they doing? 10 What you say? 11 Why he working late last night? 12 They n't playing cards. 13 She n't understand. 14 I n't having a bath. 15 What the dog eating? 46 Verbs 40 Past Simple and Past Continuous: short answers 'Were you working when I phoned you last night?' 'Yes, I was: 'Did Mary ask you to work late?' 'No, she didn't.' FORM Past Simple Past Continuous Subject + did Yes, No, I he she it we you they did. didn't. Subject + was/were Yes, No, I he she it we you they was. wasn't. were. weren't. Note: The short answer to 'Did you like it?' is 'Yes, I did.' (NOT Yes, 1 liked. Practice Someone is asking you questions. Write the short answers. 1 'Were you sitting here yesterday?' 2 'Did she see the accident?' 3 'Did you leave the hotel last night?' 4 'Was he working when you arrived?' 5 'Were they eating when you phoned?' 6 'Did your father buy another car?' 7 'Did you see that letter for you?' 8 'Were your brothers sleeping when you left?' 9 'You didn't see the accident, then?' 10 'Weren't they waiting for you?' 11 'Did you like the present?' 12 'Did the children have a good time?' 13 'Was Susan driving when you saw her?' 14 'Did he speak to you?' 'No, .I. wasn't.. ' 'Yes, she did. ' 'No, ' 'Yes, ' 'Yes, ' 'No, ' 'Yes, ' 'Yes, ' 'No, ' 'No, ' 'Yes, ' 'Yes, ' 'No, ' 'Yes, ' 47 Verbs 15 'Did you do the washing-up?' 'Yes, 16 'Were you doing your homework when I phoned?' 'Yes, 17 'Was your father washing the car?' 'Yes, 18 'Did you understand what he was saying?' 'No, 19 'Was she leaving when you got there?' 'Yes, 20 'Did your sister lose her purse yesterday?' 'Yes, 41 Present Perfect FORM has/have + past participle Positive I We You They He She It have ('ve) has ('s) finished. Question Have Has I we you they he she it finished? Negative I We You They He She It have not (haven't) has not (hasn't) finished. USE • The present perfect describes the indefinite past: I've been to Paris. I've seen this film before. They've met my parents. The past is indefinite because the time it happened is not important, or because we do not know when it happened. Note the difference between: 7 went to Paris last year, (definite time - past simple) I've been to Paris, (at some time in my life - indefinite time - present perfect). • The present perfect is often used to describe personal experience: I've been to Berlin. She's met a lot of famous people. I've heard this music before. • The question form is often Have you ever ...?(= in your life?) Have you ever been to Paris? • The present perfect is not used with past time words (last night, yesterday, in 1984, etc). It is not possible to say I've seen him yesterday. Note the difference between: She's gone to Sweden. (= and she's there now) She's been to Sweden. {= but she isn't there now) 48 Verbs Practice 41a Write the correct form of the present perfect to complete these sentences. 1 to Rome? (you ever be) 2 this film before. (I see) 3 in an office, (she never work) 4 in an aeroplane. (I never be) 5 to Germany? (he ever be) 6 my parents? (you met) 7 in the theatre? (you ever work) 8 to all the capital cities of Europe. (she be) 9 this book. (I read) 10 that new film about aliens? (you see) 11 abroad, (we never be) 12 a British policeman before. (they never see) 13 in a foreign country? (they ever live) 14 the President, (they meet) 15 to Brazil. (I never be) • 's in a verb can be short for is or has: He's tired. / It's dead. / She's thirsty. (= is) He's gone. / It's disappeared. / She's left. (= has) Practice 41 b Are these contractions is or hasl 1 He's tired. (= is) 6 She's worried 2 She's arrived 7 He's left the country 3 It's escaped 8 She's stopped working 4 She's ill 9 He's had a cold 5 He's eaten 10 It's died 49 Verbs 42 Present Perfect/Past Simple Check Write these sentences, putting the verbs into the present perfect or past simple. 1 I (read) that book three times. I've read that book three times. 2 She (go) home three days ago. She went home three days aqo. 3 I (meet) Mr and Mrs Shelley. 4 She (start) school in 1984. 5 I (leave) the office early last night. 6 He (see) the film before. 7 (You be) to Austria? 8 (You see) the film on TV last night? 9 When (you arrive) in London? 10 John (be) to Germany before. 11 (You read) this book before? 12 I (not see) him yesterday. 13 I never (go) anywhere by plane until now. 14 (You hear) their new record? It's the best they've ever made. 15 I (not know) about the disco last night. 50 Verbs 43 Present Perfect + for/since USE • The present perfect + for/since is used when something started in the past and is continuing now. I've worked here for six years, (and I'm working here now) He's lived here since 1990. (and he's living here now) NOTES • for + period of time: I've lived here for six years. I've worked here for two months. They've been married for a long time. • since + a point in time in the past: I've lived here since 1987. I've worked here since February. We've been friends since we started college. • Note the difference between the present perfect and the past simple: He's worked here for six months. (= he's working here now) He worked here for six months. (= he's not working here now) • It is not possible to say He worked here since 1990. Practice 43a Circle for or since in each sentence. 1 I've worked here t(fori/since) six years. 2 I lived here [for/since) three months. 3 I've worked in the factory {for/since) 1982. 4 He's been abroad [for/since] five years. 5 I studied French [for/since) twelve years. 6 I've known her [for/since] 1982. 7 I've lived here {for/since) I was a child. 8 We've been in Paris [for/since) we were married. 9 I've known them [for/since) years. 10 We practised {for/since) months. 43b Write these sentences, choosing for or since and putting the verb into the past simple or present perfect as necessary. 1 I (study) medicine [for/'since) three years but then I stopped. / studied medicine for three years but then I stopped. 2 She (work) for me [for/since) she left school. She's worked for me since she left school. 51 Verbs 3 I (work) in the restaurant {for/since) six months but then it closed. 4 I (live) here [for/since] I was a little girl. 5 He (be) in prison now [for/since] three years. 6 I (not see) him [for/since] he left the office. 7 I (not see) her [for/since] several years and then I met her again. 8 We (be) in Vienna [for/since) 1960. 9 I (work) here (for/since) seven years but it's time to leave now. 10 I (live) in England [for/since) 1993. 44 Present Perfect USE The present perfect is used to show a connection in the speaker's mind between the past and the present. This occurs in two main ways: a) the unfinished past - by referring to something that started in the past and is continuing now: I've lived here for seven years, (and I live here now) I've worked here since 1994. (and I work here now) Exercise 43. - or describing something that happened in an unfinished time period: I've read two books this week. I've seen him twice today. She's telephoned three times this morning. b) the indefinite past: referring to the past with no definite time (>• Exercise 41). It is connected to the present in some way, and is often used in the following situations: 52 Verbs describing something that happened in the past, when the result can be seen in the present: He's painted his house. Someone's taken my wallet. She's bought a new car. - describing something that happened recently, often when giving 'news': Two men have escaped from prison in London. The prime minister has arrived in Australia. - with certain words [just, yet, already): He's just gone out. I've already told her. Have you done your homework yet? - describing personal experience: I've been to Paris. He's never been abroad. - describing personal experience with superlatives or ordinals: She's the most intelligent person I've met. This is the third time we've complained. Practice The sentences below belong to one or more of the categories above. Complete these sentences by putting the verbs into the present perfect. 1 She .'?.P.?en...\\\ for several months, (be) 2 This is the nicest restaurant I (see) 3 Three people the company this week, (leave) 4 I three letters already, (write) 5 We two holidays this year, (have) 6 There a revolution in San Serife. (be) 7 I that film, (see) 8 Someone your front gate! (knock down) 9 It's the first time I (be) here. 10 Indonesian food? (you ever eat) 11 your homework yet? (you do) 12 This is the fourth time he my car. (damage) 13 You a shave! (have) 14 She's got the best voice I (ever hear) 15 He here since eight o'clock, (be) 53 Verbs 16 The Prime Minister for a meeting with the President, (ask) 17 She (just go out) 18 I (never smoke) 19 This is the first time the children on a plane, (be) 20 already Mary? (you see) 45 Present Perfect with just, yet, and already Notes • Note the position of just, yet, and already: just: He's just gone. / Has he just gone? yet: Has she gone yet? / Have you written that letter to Paul yet? already: She's already left. / She's left already. / She's left the house already. Has she already left? / Has she left already? / Has she left the house already? • yet is used only with negatives and questions: She hasn't phoned yet. Has she phoned yet? Practice In your notebook, write these sentences putting the words in brackets in the correct place. If two answers are possible, write them both. 1 I'm sorry, she's gone - she went some time ago. (already) I'm sorry, she's already gone - she went some time ago. I'm sorry, she's gone already - she went some time ago. 2 Have you finished? It's time to go. (yet) 3 I haven't done my homework, (yet) 4 I've told her several times that I can't come, (already) 5 You've missed her - if you hurry, you'll catch her in the street, (just) 6 Have you finished painting the house? (yet) 7 I've said that I'm not going to be here tomorrow, (already) 8 I haven't explained, (yet) 9 Have you got your passport? (already) 10 He's told me that I've got the sack, (just) 54 Verbs 46 Present Perfect Continuous FORM has/have + been + verb-ing Positive Question Negative I We You They He She It have ('ve) has ('s) been waiting. Have Has I we you they he she it been waiting? I We You They He She It have not haven't has not (hasn't) been waiting. USE • Frequently used with how long, for and since (>• Exercise 43 for difference between for and since). I've been studying English since I was a child. How long have you been waiting? • To describe activities which were happening until this moment or a very short time ago: 'You look tired.' 'Yes, I've been working all night' "Why are you so dirty?' 'I've been playing football' Note: this tense is not used with to be or with verbs that do not normally take the continuous. Practice Write these sentences, putting the verbs into the present perfect continuous. 1 'What (you do) today?' 'I (play) tennis.' 'What have you been doing today?' I've been playing tennis.' 2 'How long (you study) English?' 3 'Oh, David! I (look) for you!' 4 'Pat (live) here for twenty-five years.' 5 'I'm tired. We (walk) all day.' 6 'How long (you learn) to drive?' 55 Verbs 7 'I (wait) here for ages.5 8 'She's bad-tempered because she (work] too hard. 9 'They (watch) football since three o'clock.' 10 'Why (you see) your parents so much recently?' 11 'The children look exhausted. What (they do)?' 12 'She should pass the exam. She (study) for weeks.' 13 'Your mother sends her love. I (just speak) to her on the phone. 14 'I (work) here since I was eighteen.' THE FUTURE TENSE 47 Present Continuous + time word FORM Present continuous ( Exercise 29) + time word {tomorrow, next week, on Saturday, in two weeks, etc.): I'm seeing them on this Saturday in three days in two weeks' time this week/Friday next week/Friday 56 Verbs USE • To talk about plans which are arranged for a particular time in the future. This construction is used very often with come and go, and with verbs like see, stay, visit, meet, etc: They're going tomorrow. I'm arriving next week. We're visiting the States in three weeks. Notes • Remember that a time word or expression must be used, or understood from the conversation, to make the present continuous a future. • This is not just a 'near' future - it is possible to say: He's coming back in ten years. Practice Write these sentences in full, putting the verbs into the present continuous and supply the missing words where necessary. 1 I / see / them / Saturday. I'm seeing them on Saturday. 2 They / come / here / three weeks. They're coming here in three weeks. 3 I / meet / John / three o'clock. 4 What / you do / Friday night? 5 I / go / to the disco / Saturday evening. 6 We / go back / to the States / three years. 7 They / go on holiday / two days' time. 8 I / not come home / Friday. 9 You / work late / tomorrow night? 10 We / not go to school / next week. 57 Verbs 11 He / come to see you / tomorrow. 12 Mr and Mrs Green / go away / three weeks. 13 We / have a party / Saturday. 14 I / see her again / next week. 15 You / play football / this week? 48 going to 58 FORM Positive Question Negative I He She It We You They am ('m) is ('s) are ('re) going to pay. Am Is Are I he she it we you they going to pay? I He She It We You They am not ('m not) is not (isn't) C's not) are not (aren't) ('re not) going to pay. USE To talk about a planned future action: I'm going to see my parents on Saturday. (This use is similar to present continuous time word Exercise 47.) • To talk about something in the future which we can see as a result of something happening now: Look at those clouds. It's going to rain. That man on the bike is going to fall off. • To make statements about the future in a neutral way: Alan's going to finish his exams on Friday. Jenny's going to be five next week. I'm going to work f
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